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Korean J Art Hist > Volume 302; 2019 > Article
Korean Journal of Art History 2019;302:101-123.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31065/ahak.302.302.201906.004    Published online June 30, 2019.
1764年 作 長興寺 地藏十王圖 試論
김 소 연
미국 캘리포니아대학교 로스앤젤레스 캠퍼스 박사수료
Ksitigarbha and the Ten Kings of Hell from Jangheung Monastery
So-yeon Kim
Ph.D. Candidate in UCLA
Received: 28 February 2019   • Revised: 6 April 2019   • Accepted: 28 April 2019
The Ksitigarbha and Ten Kings of Hell from Jangheung Monastery at the Museum for East Asian Art, Cologne (Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst Köln), painted in 1764, has never yet been revealed to the public. The head monk-painter for this work was Pogwan, who was active in the 18th century in the Gyeongsangdo area. He started his career as a member of the monkpainter Limhan’s workshop, and later became a head painter with his own workshop. The 1764 Ksitigarbha and Ten Kings of Hell is his first work as a head painter, indicating that Pogwan became an independent painter with a workshop earlier than previously known. Jangheung Monastery was situated at Danseok Mountain in Gyeongju. The monastery was first destroyed during the Japanese invasion of 1592, and rebuilt in the late 17th century by monk Deokhong. It was finally shut down sometime before 1933. In the 18th century, the monks of Jangheung monastery tried to elevate its status by publishing the history of the monastery that publicized its connections with historical figures such as Kim Yu-sin and Wonhyo. The record of monk-painters and donators who participated in the making of the painting reveal that exchanges of human resources existed between Jangheung Monastery and Bulguk Monastery. Moreover, inscriptions on the Stele of the Tongdo Monastery Stupa, and a 19th century Wanmun, a governmental document that approve reduction of labor for Buddhist monasteries in the Gyeongju area prove that the monasteries were associated with others for diverse purposes. This implies that the relations between monk-painters, networking of regional monasteries, and governmental policy regarding monks were all important factors in completing large Buddhist works like this painting.
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